Is described as a particular urge inherent in an
individual which when set into activity causes
the person the person to move or act in a
1.Intrinsic ( direct) motivation
2.Extrinsic (indirect) motivation
intrinsic – Is defined as self imposed or direct
because the urge comes from within the
individual and so makes him responsible for
his own decision.
Extrinsic– Is from external forces.
IMPORTANT OF MOTIVATION IN TEACHING
1.It eliminate boredom
2.It stimulate children interest
3.It encourages hardworking towards goals
4.It give maximum participation of children
5.Encouragment of backward children.
MEANS OF MOTIVATION
1.Reward as incentive
3.Examination and test
4.Use of field trip
5.Judicious use of purnishment
METHODS OF TEACHING
These method is usually teacher centered
education. The teacher do the talking while
pupils listen, the teacher select a topic which
is based on a current problem or issue which
he thinks is of important in any aspect of
human endeavor. Is also the oldest method of
These method is characterized by
1.Communication of knowledge
2.Emphasis on teaching rather than learning.
3.Teacher controls the link between the skills
to be taught and the mental capacity as well as
interest of children.
FORMS OF LECTURE METHODS
1.Formal oral essay
2. Lecture Demonstration
7. Provocation lecture
Characteristics of Effective delivery in a
1.Judicious use of illustrations
2.Good reading of materials
3.Use of right gestures
4.Audibility of what the lecture say.
How to improve the lecture method
1.During the lecture, the lecturer can ask the
learners question periodically.
2.At the end of lecture, learners should be
allowed to give their feedback through
question, comments and other other reaction.
3.The lecture should enrich his instruction
through the ample use of audio visual aid and
4.Encourage learners to jot down some of the
salient points of the lecture.
DEMONSTRATION METHOD OF TEACHING
Demonstration can be done to an individual or
group of pupils. Is therefore defined as a
means of showing the way an activity is
performed, to enable children to do whatever
they learn on their own.Teacher can teach
someone to show it to others in a group or do
it on his own.
1. it helps to arouse and maintain attention in
2. it offers practical example to learners.
3. Students become good observers and work
4. it helps the teacher to depend less on verbal
1. Individual care is not taken.
2. The passive observation wastes time.
3. Some learners may find it difficult to see
4. Learners will learn better if the teacher
allow active participation and involvement.
How to improve demonstration method
1.A good demonstration should not last long.
2.A good demonstration should proceed
gradually and systematically so as to enable
learners assimilate the concepts.
3.The teacher should not crowd the
demonstration with too many concepts at time.
It specially organized for pupils to go out to
see the things or actions they study in class
and learn more about them. Is therefore
defined as learning on the spot, outside the
normal classroom situation.
Forms of Activities
1.Pre -field trip activities
They are activities that goes on before the
trip.Arrangements with the host, permission
from appropriate quarters, transportation etc.
2.Field trip activities.
They are activities that goes on during the
field. Students should put on the attire. There
should be head count.
3.Post field trip activities
Activities that take place after the trip to the
1.it enhances cooperation learning.
2.it exposes the students to the real world
situations which are unmatched to other
classroom teaching and learning situations.
3.The group work promotes tolerance in
4.Students learn to work on their own as they
are given, individual assignment to carry out.
Is a method in which students are helped or
guide to execute a work. It need careful
planning, enough time and supervision for
effective work to be done.
Characteristics of a Good Project
1. Timely- it should be related directly to the
lesson and vocational interest.
2. Usefulness- Practical aim of the project
should not be lost,it must be capable of being
applied in life.
3. Interesting – Projects should be interesting.
1.It Promotes democratic way of life.
2.It upholds freedom
3.It enhances problem solving
4.It promote citizenship education
5. A source of catharsis for the low achiever.
1.Lack of requisite text books
3.Lack of competent teachers
4.Reliance on students choice.
Is when learners are allowed to say their views
on a particular issue or problem. It involve
The main role of the teacher in this method is
1.It reflects a democratic process.
2.There is high level participating of both shy
and low achievers in group discussion.
3.It develops group feeling which welds
4.They makes students more tolerance because
they learn to accommodate different views.
strategies of discussion method of teaching
1.Recognition of a problem
2.Analysis of the problem
It may be defined in the content as collection
of objects displaced publicly for teaching and
1.It enable children to get first hand
2.Exhibition encourages child centered
3.It encourages healthy competition among
4.It enable learners learn how to mount
factors to consider in production or selection
1.Originality – ideas processing
2. Design and Composition – good organization
of elements in the exhibits showing variety.
3.Sustainability of materials/ media
How to organize an exhibition
1.Getting the artifacts ready.
2 .Working out the cost .
3.Acquaring exhibition venue.
4.Preparing programs and advertising.
5.Designing and decoration of exhibition .
6.Mounting the exhibit .
7.Opening ceremony .
8. Closing ceremony .
Factors to consider when mounting an
1. Size of the room
2. Arrangements of tables and wall panel
3. Lighting of the place
4. Arrangements of items
5. Labeling of items
6. Table / Wall spread