Growth :
Is simply the increase in size and structure of
part of the body.
Growth is usually physical, and therefore can
be compare, observe and measure. It is
quantitative in nature.
Development :
Is simply the increase in our abilities to
function effectively. Is the qualitative change
that an individual undergoes in the course of
his or her life span.
Domains of development.
1.Cognitive development :
Is the changes in reasoning, thinking and
language acquisition. Its also deal with how
individuals store or gain knowledge. It can also
be called intellectual development.
2.Physical development :
It is the growth and changes the occur in
persons body which include size, height, the
brain, sense organs, weight etc
3.Psychosocial :
It emphasizes the childs interactions with his
It concerns changes in feelings or emotions as
well as changes in how individuals relate to
it include relationship with family, peer and

Growth and development are :
1.directional -development starts from a point
and progresses to another.
-it starts from the head to the heel or tail.
(cephalocaudal direction)
-it again starts from centre of the body to the
outer parts. (proximodistal direction)
2.Continuous processes :
This means that, stages of development fellows
one form to the other with no clear cut or
break. Its begins at the time of conception and
continues till death. Is not possible to see the
changes daily, is a gradual occurrence.
3.Influenced by heredity and environment :
Hereditary factors are those that are inherited
from our parents through genes.Therefore this
principle is of genetic factors and
environmental factors.
4.Individualized :
These tell us that every individuals develop in
their own way. Each child have his / her own
rate of emotional, mental, physical and social
development regardless of the stages of
5.Cumulative in nature :
Before a child say a first word, he / she
bubbles with the sound such as ma ” ma which
leads to mama. So this principle says that
certain changes in human body may appear
sudden, but in reality it is a result of a prior
growth and experience.

Educational implications of principles of
growth and development are :
1.A rich environment is an important factor to
a child total growth and development. Create
an enriched environment for teaching and
2.Since development is directional, you should
present your lesson in an orderly and
systematically manner to the pupils.
3.Give pupils enough exercises so that they will
have enough practice of what ever is discussed
in class.
4.Since development is individualized process,
individual differences exist among them
5.Development is cumulative, so teachers
should draw upon the relevant past
experiences and knowledge of the pupils for
better understanding.

1.Development is critical and sensitive :
Certain periods in human development are
very critical and sensitive. eg The first three
months of a pregnancy.
2.Growth and development is influenced by
maturity :
A child can not be trained to walk when his
legs are not matured or ready to perform the
task of walking. This principle then tell us
before we can perform any task, our physical
organ necessary for the performance of the
task must have reached a stage of action.
3.Development fellows an orderly sequence :
Development fellow a sequence order in a
sense that, a child crawls before he or she
4.Development proceeds in stages :
After birth, individuals develop through
infancy, childhood, adolescent, and adulthood.
We developed in stages in almost all aspects of
lives and each stage is marked by certain
5.Development and growth proceeds from
general to specific :
6.Different part of the body develope at
different rate.
Educational implications :
1.Present only the lesson that suit the age
level of children, thus with the principle which
states that development proceeds in stages.
2.Teaching and learning should be designed in
a way that they move from general to specific,
thus with the principle development proceeds
from general to specific.
3.Teachers should present lesson in an orderly
and systematic manner so that pupils can
fellow easily to help them understand, thus the
principle development fellow an orderly
4.Parents must be educated in PTA meetings
about the critical periods in the child’s life to
guard against things that can negatively affect
the child’s future development.

Is transmission of characteristics or traits from
parents to their offsprings through the
genes.Inherited characteristics include colour
of hair, skin and eyes, body size and weight,
levels of intelligence etc. The medium of this
transmission is primarily through sexual
intercourse between a female and a male.
Influence of hereditary on development :
1.The knowledge of critical and sensitive
periods will also lead to deeper understanding
of some of the development problems that
children may have and put teachers and
parents in a position to give assistance to them
2.The knowledge will encourage parents to take
steps to avoid things and practices that can
harm the unborn child.
3.Heredity set the lower and upper limits of an
individuals developmental potential. it
determine weather an individual will grow tall
or short, dull or intelligent. encourage parents and teachers to treat
young children with care, love and affection so
that they will turn develop these positive
5.Its also help teachers and parents to become
careful about the type of information and
knowledge that children get access to, either
from the school, home or the media.
6.The of every individual is determine by
nature. The XX chromosome from the female
and the X and Y chromosome from the male .

The factors that affects an individuals growth
and development but which does not pass
through the genes, are environmental factors.
Nurture therefore refers to any influence
which an individual come into contact with
after receiving the hereditary pattern through
the genes. These influence start from the
womb of the mother.

1.The mothers womb has a very great
influence on the growth and development of
the individual. Its the first environment of the
2.Other environmental factors such as
malnutrition, diseases and infections, and
accidents can greatly affect the developing
child after birth.
3.Nurture determines the level to which the
limit of developmental potentials set by
heredity will reach.
4.Individual growth and development is also
affected by the type of environments which
the individual is brought up.

This refer to the method, ways and practice
through which the child is brought up.
Negative effects on child and adolescent
development :
1.He or she grow up to become a person who
accepts whatever he or she is told without
questions because he was trained to respect
and accept adults suggestions.
2.Free communications and interruption of
adults conversation are activiely control.
Children are not allowed to partook in
interruption with adults.
3.Belief systems and taboos are a part of the
African culture and infused into their child
rearing practice.
4.Over dependence on others due to effects of
the extended family system may let the child
grow up to be over reliance on others.

Positive effects:
1.Respect for the old age and authority leads
to the acceptance and adherence to rules and
regulations in the school, and in a larger
2.The traditional system of child rearing and
family life promote strong bonds of loyalty
between family members, and the child grows
into adulthood with strong feeling at security .
3.Cooperation and mutual help are inculcated
from infancy.
4.The traditional system of apprenticeship in
the father or mother ‘s occupation helps in
future orientation or job.

1.Rhesus : This talks about the blood
characters we inherits from our parents. it
could be positive or negative.
2.Chromosome Abnormality: At conception,
zygote so formed is supposed to have 46
chromosomes,thus 23 pairs. If a child is born
with one chromosome less or more, then it
give rise to chromosomal abnormality .
3.Metabolic disorders:
It refers to the chemical changes which occur
or take place in the body when food is taken.

Other congenital diseases :
3.Sickle cell

1.Maternal age :
Is the child bearing age of a woman.Thus from
the age of 20-34. An old woman is likely to
give birth to an infant who suffer from specific
genetic diseases like
down’s syndrome.
2.Maternal malnutrition :
3.Drug and alcohol
4.Attempted abortion
7.Sexually transmitted diseases
8.Maternal emotional condition

Peri-natal :
Are event considered as happening during and
around the onset of birth. The following are
the problems responsible for it.
1.Narrow pelvic
2.Fall of mother
3.Use of forceps by the doctor
4.Breach delivery
Post-metal :
They are factors that occur after birth or after
These factors includes
2.Head injury
3.Whooping cough

This refer to the development and growth of a
fertilized human cell in the womb before it is
born.It usually takes 270days or nine months
before for the child which develop to be born.
The trends are :the periodds of ovum, embryo
and foetus.
the period of ovum:
This is from the time the cell is fertilized to
about 10days later. The period stops or ends at
the end at the time when the zygote become
implanted to the walls of the mother’s womb.
the period of embryo :
different part of the body are developed in this
stage. within this stage a connection between
the blood stream of the mother and the child
develops.Is the second period of the pre-natal
the period of foetus :
Development continues here. Organs start to
function from here till birth.

The combined effect of heredity and the
environment has influence on an individual
who is distinctly different from one another.
Children are different in terms of intellectual
ability and physical structure.
Every person is indeed biologically and
genetically different from every other,said by
Dobzansky (1973).
Individual differences are cause by both
internal and external conditions.
Ways which make one child differ from the
other :
1.Sex difference, thus boy and girl
2.Temperament -inborn emotional tendency
like anger, patience etc
3.Health difference -Some children are healthy
while some are sickles
4.Physical structure -height, size, deformities
5.Intellectual abilities – low achievers, high
achievers and average.
7.Attitude towards many situations.
Important of individual differences to the
1. The teacher need to appreciate and
recognize the fact that individual children have
their specific problems and need to be offered
special help and guidance.
2.Classroom instructions should involve
enough individual teaching techniques.
3.The teacher realized it is not useful to
compare children upon a common yardstick.
4.It is easier to accept every child as a person
who has worth if the teacher knows about
individual differences.
5.In using re-inforcement in the classroom,
each child must be awarded what would re-
inforce him or her most.
Developmental card :
1.Physical maturation
2.Quest for knowledge
3.Acquisition of personal values, aspirations
and psychological competent.

Is the process of gradually bringing the various
parts of an individuals psychological, physical
and physiological features to full development.

This depends on the maturity physical and
mental and also on the accumulation of
experiences as well as a foundation of building
of new learning.

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