PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF TEACHING

Teaching is an activity that is performed by a
more knowledgeable and experience person
with the view to helping a less knowledgeable
and experience person.
The purpose of teaching is to help others
learn. Teaching is associated with learning.

TEACHING ACTIVITIES IN THE CLASSROOM.
1. Talking and chalking
2. Talking and speaking with people.
3. Explaining and questioning.
4. Arranging classroom materials
5. Organizing people in one group.
6. Write points on the chalk board for pupils
to note
7. Making pupils work.

INSTRUCTIONS
Is the arrangement of outside events in a
learning, retention and transfer( Lefrancois
1988). Is basically the structured, ordered or
organized information that learners receive in
a designed programme.

PURPOSE OF INSTRUCTION
1. To develop a rational power.
2. To discover, create and express meaning.
3. To develop a quest for for knowledge.

PLANING
KEY FACTORS IN PLANING INSTRUCTIONS
INCLUDE :
1. Instructional Objective: Is the statement of
knowledge or tasks that pupils should master
after one or lesson.
2. Entering behavior : It describes the
characteristics that the pupils bring into
instructional event especially what pupils
already know about what is to be taught or
learned.
3. Class size : The class size for any
instructional activity should neither be too
small or large.
4. Performance Assessment : This deal with the
assessment of the teaching -learning outcomes.
5. Instructional Procedure :This have to do
with the way in which a particular learning
task is taught.
6. Age and Ability of pupils :There is the need
to consider the the age and ability of pupils
before instructional activities are designed.
7. The syllabus :The things to be taught should
come from the syllabus.
8. Material Available for Instruction:
Teachers
must consider the kind of materials to involve
in teaching and to acquire them.
Instructional skills –
1. Observation skills
2. Questioning skills
3. Oral Language skills
4. Lesson planning skills
5. Class management skill
and many more…
SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING
AND LEARNING.
The principle of :>>
1. Practice.
2. Child centered learning.
3. Facilitative relationship.
4. Teaching from known to unknown.
5. Chunking.
THE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING :
1. The principle of Partial Activity :According
to Thorndike, a response made only to parts or
aspects of a total matter than the totality, is
the principle of partial activity.
2. The principle of Multiple Responses: The
principle of multiple response states that man
or even animals may try many responses
before the right response through the process
of trial and error.
3. The principle of Analogy or Assimilation
:This involves adding new information to old
ways of thinking or behaving.
4. The principle of Mental Set :The tendency
to transfer previously learned knowledge to
new situation.
LAWS OF LEARNING :
1. The law of Effect : These law states that
when you are rewarded for a good thing you
have done you are likely to repeat that act. On
the other hand, if your act attracts
purnishment you would avoid such act.
2. The law of Exercise : According to the law,
when an individual is given the opportunity to
practice what he / she learns, learning
becomes more permanent.
3. The law of Readiness : If someone is not
ready to learn, and you force the one to learn,
no learning will take place because the one has
made up mind not to learn.
THE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING :
Learning is said to have occurred if there is a
relatively permanent change in behaviour
potential of an individual as a result of
practice or experience. Learning also includes
the acquisition of skills, attitudes, knowledge
or other forms of new experience.
The effects of the change must persist and
reccur or practice.

PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING :
1. THE PRINCIPLE OF FACILITATIVE
RELATIONSHIP.>>
This is a kind of interaction that should exist
between the teacher and pupils so as to aid
teaching and learning. These means making
something easy in the teaching learning
process.
2. THE PRINCIPLE OF CHILD CENTERED
LEARNING.>>
This is an empowerment given to children to
control the learning situation.
importance :
1. There is a relaxed and friendly atmosphere.
2. Children interact more with each other.
3. Teachers respect the pupils individuality and
encourage them to develop their potential.

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